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Archive for October, 2011

Adi Sankaracharya’s
ATMA BODHA

Translated by Swami Chinmayananda
Published by Chinmaya Mission, Mumbai 


1. I am composing the ATMA-BODHA, this treatise of the Knowledge of the Self, for those who have purified themselves by austerities and are peaceful in heart and calm, who are free from cravings and are desirous of liberation.
2. Just as the fire is the direct cause for cooking, so without Knowledge no emancipation can be had. Compared with all other forms of discipline Knowledge of the Self is the one direct means for liberation.
3. Action cannot destroy ignorance, for it is not in conflict with or opposed to ignorance. Knowledge does verily destroy ignorance as light destroys deep darkness.
4. The Soul appears to be finite because of ignorance. When ignorance is destroyed the Self which does not admit of any multiplicity truly reveals itself by itself: like the Sun when the clouds pass away.
5. Constant practice of knowledge purifies the Self (‘Jivatman’), stained by ignorance and then disappears itself – as the powder of the ‘Kataka-nut’ settles down after it has cleansed the muddy water.
6. The world which is full of attachments, aversions, etc., is like a dream. It appears to be real, as long as it continues but appears to be unreal when one is awake (i.e., when true wisdom dawns).
7. The Jagat appears to be true (Satyam) so long as Brahman, the substratum, the basis of all this creation, is not realised. It is like the illusion of silver in the mother-of pearl.
8. Like bubbles in the water, the worlds rise, exist and dissolve in the Supreme Self, which is the material cause and the prop of everything.
9. All the manifested world of things and beings are projected by imagination upon the substratum which is the Eternal All-pervading Vishnu, whose nature is Existence-Intelligence; just as the different ornaments are all made out of the same gold.
10. The All-pervading Akasa appears to be diverse on account of its association with various conditionings (Upadhis) which are different from each other. Space becomes one on the destruction of these limiting adjuncts: So also the Omnipresent Truth appears to be diverse on account of Its association with the various Upadhis and becomes one on the destruction of these Upadhis.
11. Because of Its association with different conditionings (Upadhis) such ideas as caste, colour and position are super-imposed upon the Atman, as flavour, colour, etc., are super-imposed on water.
12. Determined for each individual by his own past actions and made up of the Five elements – that have gone through the process of “five-fold self-division and mutual combination” (Pancheekarana) – are born the gross-body, the medium through which pleasure and pain are experienced, the tent-of-experiences.
13. The five Pranas, the ten organs and the Manas and the Buddhi, formed from the rudimentary elements (Tanmatras) before their “five-fold division and mutual combination with one another” (Pancheekarana) and this is the subtle body, the instruments-of-experience (of the individual).
14. Avidya which is indescribable and beginningless is the Causal Body. Know for certain that the Atman is other than these three conditioning bodies (Upadhis).
15. In its identification with the five-sheaths the Immaculate Atman appears to have borrowed their qualities upon Itself; as in the case of a crystal which appears to gather unto itself colour of its vicinity (blue cloth, etc.,).
16. Through discriminative self-analysis and logical thinking one should separate the Pure self within from the sheaths as one separates the rice from the husk, bran, etc., that are covering it.
17. The Atman does not shine in everything although He is All-pervading. He is manifest only in the inner equipment, the intellect (Buddhi): just as the reflection in a clean mirror.
18. One should understand that the Atman is always like the King, distinct from the body, senses, mind and intellect, all of which constitute the matter (Prakriti); and is the witness of their functions.
19. The moon appears to be running when the clouds move in the sky. Likewise to the non-discriminating person the Atman appears to be active when It is observed through the functions of the sense-organs.
20. Depending upon the energy of vitality of Consciousness (Atma Chaitanya) the body, senses, mind and intellect engage themselves in their respective activities, just as men work depending upon the light of the Sun.
21. Fools, because they lack in their powers of discrimination superimpose on the Atman, the Absolute-Existence-Knowledge (Sat-Chit), all the varied functions of the body and the senses, just as they attribute blue colour and the like to the sky.
22. The tremblings that belong to the waters are attributed through ignorance to the reflected moon dancing on it: likewise agency of action, of enjoyment and of other limitations (which really belong to the mind) are delusively understood as the nature of the Self (Atman).
23. Attachment, desire, pleasure, pain, etc., are perceived to exist so long as Buddhi or mind functions. They are not perceived in deep sleep when the mind ceases to exist. Therefore they belong to the mind alone and not to the Atman.
24. Just as luminosity is the nature of the Sun, coolness of water and heat of fire, so too the nature of the Atman is Eternity, Purity, Reality, Consciousness and Bliss.
25. By the indiscriminate blending of the two – the Existence-Knowledge-aspect of the Self and the thought-wave of the intellect – there arises the notion of “I know”.
26. Atman never does anything and the intellect of its own accord has no capacity to experience ‘I know’. But the individuality in us delusorily thinks he is himself the seer and the knower.
27. Just as the person who regards a rope as a snake is overcome by fear, so also one considering oneself as the ego (Jiva) is overcome by fear. The ego-centric individuality in us regains fearlessness by realising that It is not a Jiva but is Itself the Supreme Soul.
28. Just as a lamp illumines a jar or a pot, so also the Atman illumines the mind and the sense organs, etc. These material-objects by themselves cannot illumine themselves because they are inert.
29. A lighted-lamp does not need another lamp to illumine its light. So too, Atman which is Knowledge itself needs no other knowledge to know it.
30. By a process of negation of the conditionings (Upadhis) through the help of the scriptural statement ‘It is not this, It is not this’, the oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme Soul, as indicated by the great Mahavakyas, has to be realised.
31. The body, etc., up to the “Causal Body” – Ignorance – which are objects perceived, are as perishable as bubbles. Realise through discrimination that I am the ‘Pure Brahman’ ever completely separate from all these.
32. I am other than the body and so I am free from changes such as birth, wrinkling, senility, death, etc. I have nothing to do with the sense objects such as sound and taste, for I am without the sense-organs.
33. I am other than the mind and hence, I am free from sorrow, attachment, malice and fear, for “HE is without breath and without mind, Pure, etc.”, is the Commandment of the great scripture, the Upanishads.
34. I am without attributes and actions; Eternal (Nitya) without any desire and thought (Nirvikalpa), without any dirt (Niranjana), without any change (Nirvikara), without form (Nirakara), ever-liberated (Nitya Mukta) ever-pure (Nirmala).
35. Like the space I fill all things within and without. Changeless and the same in all, at all times I am pure, unattached, stainless and motionless.
36. I am verily that Supreme Brahman alone which is Eternal, Pure and Free, One, indivisible and non-dual and of the nature of Changeless-Knowledge-Infinite.
37. The impression “I am Brahman” thus created by constant practice destroys ignorance and the agitation caused by it, just as medicine or Rasayana destroys disease.
38. Sitting in a solitary place, freeing the mind from desires and controlling the senses, meditate with unswerving attention on the Atman which is One without-a-second.
39. The wise one should intelligently merge the entire world-of-objects in the Atman alone and constantly think of the Self ever as contaminated by anything as the sky.
40. He who has realised the Supreme, discards all his identification with the objects of names and forms. (Thereafter) he dwells as an embodiment of the Infinite Consciousness and Bliss. He becomes the Self.
41. There are no distinctions such as “Knower”, the “Knowledge” and the “Object of Knowledge” in the Supreme Self. On account of Its being of the nature of endless Bliss, It does not admit of such distinctions within Itself. It alone shines by Itself.
42. When this the lower and the higher aspects of the Self are well churned together, the fire of knowledge is born from it, which in its mighty conflagration shall burn down all the fuel of ignorance in us.
43. The Lord of the early dawn (Aruna) himself has already looted away the thick darkness, when soon the sun rises. The Divine Consciousness of the Self rises when the right knowledge has already killed the darkness in the bosom.
44. Atman is an ever-present Reality. Yet, because of ignorance it is not realised. On the destruction of ignorance Atman is realised. It is like the missing ornament of one’s neck.
45. Brahman appears to be a ‘Jiva’ because of ignorance, just as a post appears to be a ghost. The ego-centric-individuality is destroyed when the real nature of the ‘Jiva’ is realised as the Self.
46. The ignorance characterised by the notions ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ is destroyed by the knowledge produced by the realisation of the true nature of the Self, just as right information removes the wrong notion about the directions.
47. The Yogi of perfect realisation and enlightenment sees through his “eye of wisdom” (Gyana Chakshush) the entire universe in his own Self and regards everything else as his own Self and nothing else.
48. Nothing whatever exists other than the Atman: the tangible universe is verily Atman. As pots and jars are verily made of clay and cannot be said to be anything but clay, so too, to the enlightened soul and that is perceived is the Self.
49. A liberated one, endowed with Self-knowledge, gives up the traits of his previously explained equipments (Upadhis) and because of his nature of Sat-chit-ananda, he verily becomes Brahman like (the worm that grows to be) a wasp.
50. After crossing the ocean of delusion and killing the monsters of likes and dislikes, the Yogi who is united with peace dwells in the glory of his own realised Self – as an Atmaram.
51. The self-abiding Jivan Mukta, relinquishing all his attachments to the illusory external happiness and satisfied with the bliss derived from the Atman, shines inwardly like a lamp placed inside a jar.
52. Though he lives in the conditionings (Upadhis), he, the contemplative one, remains ever unconcerned with anything or he may move about like the wind, perfectly unattached.
53. On the destruction of the Upadhis, the contemplative one is totally absorbed in ‘Vishnu’, the All-pervading Spirit, like water into water, space into space and light into light.
54. Realise That to be Brahman, the attainment of which leaves nothing more to be attained, the blessedness of which leaves no other blessing to be desired and the knowledge of which leaves nothing more to be known.
55. Realise that to be Brahman which, when seen, leaves nothing more to be seen, which having become one is not born again in this world and which, when knowing leaves nothing else to be known.
56. Realise that to be Brahman which is Existence-Knowledge-Bliss-Absolute, which is Non-dual, Infinite, Eternal and One and which fills all the quarters – above and below and all that exists between.
57. Realise that to be Brahman which is Non-dual, Indivisible, One and Blissful and which is indicated in Vedanta as the Immutable Substratum, realised after the negation of all tangible objects.
58. Deities like Brahma and others taste only a particle, of the unlimited Bliss of Brahman and enjoy in proportion their share of that particle.
59. All objects are pervaded by Brahman. All actions are possible because of Brahman: therefore Brahman permeates everything as butter permeates milk.
60. Realise that to be Brahman which is neither subtle nor gross: neither short nor long: without birth or change: without form, qualities, colour and name.
61. That by the light of which the luminous, orbs like the Sun and the Moon are illuminated, but which is not illumined by their light, realise that to be Brahman.
62. Pervading the entire universe outwardly and inwardly the Supreme Brahman shines of Itself like the fire that permeates a red-hot iron-ball and glows by itself.
63. Brahman is other than this, the universe. There exists nothing that is not Brahman. If any object other than Brahman appears to exist, it is unreal like the mirage.
64. All that is perceived, or heard, is Brahman and nothing else. Attaining the knowledge of the Reality, one sees the Universe as the non-dual Brahman, Existence-Knowledge-Bliss-Absolute.
65. Though Atman is Pure Consciousness and ever present everywhere, yet It is perceived by the eye-of-wisdom alone: but one whose vision is obscured by ignorance he does not see It; as the blind do not see the resplendent Sun.
66. The ‘Jiva’ free from impurities, being heated in the fire of knowledge kindled by hearing and so on, shines of itself like gold.
67. The Atman, the Sun of Knowledge that rises in the sky of the heart, destroys the darkness of the ignorance, pervades and sustains all and shines and makes everything to shine.
68. He who renouncing all activities, who is free of all the limitations of time, space and direction, worships his own Atman which is present everywhere, which is the destroyer of heat and cold, which is Bliss-Eternal and stainless, becomes All-knowing and All-pervading and attains thereafter Immortality.
Thus concludes Atma-Bodha.
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Atma Panchakam

 

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Adi Sankaracharya’s
Atma Panchakam

[The pentet on Soul]
Translated by P. R. Ramachander
Naham deho, nendriya nyantharangam,
Nahamkara prana vargaa na budhi,
Darapathya kshethra vithadhi dhoora,
Sakshi nithya prathyagathma shivoham. 1
I am neither the body, nor the senses nor the mind,
Neither am I pride, soul nor intellect,
But I am Shiva, who is eternal,
Who is completely unattached.
Who is far, far and far away
From wife, son, lands and assets,
And is the witness for everything.
Rajjwagnanath bhathi rajjuryadhai,
Swathma jnanad athmano jeeva bhava,
Aapthokthya hi branthinase sa rajjur,
Jjevo naham desikokthya shivoham. 2
Due to ignorance I think that a rope is a snake,
For due to absence of Jnana.
I ascribe life in to lifeless thing.
And when the realized one points it out,
I wake up from this illusion,
And understand that it is a rope and not a snake.
Similarly I am not the soul but Shiva,
Which I only understand by the teaching of the great teacher.
Aabhadhedham vishwamathmanya sathyam,
Sathya jnanananda roope vimohat,
Nidhramohat swapnavath thanna sathyam,
Shuddha poorno nithya eka Shivoham. 3
Due to the veil of ignorance,
I see this world in the eternal life,
Which has the form of truth and joy,
Similar to the dream which I see due to veil of sleep,
For I am the pure complete, perennial and single Shiva.
Mathi nanyath kinchid athrasthi viswam,
Sathyam bahyam vasthu mayopakjnaptham,
Adarsandhar bhasamanasya thulyam,
Mayyadwaithe bhathi thasmad shivoham. 4
This world is in no way different from me,
Similar to everything getting reflected in a mirror,
All the world is within me,
So I am that Shiva which is without two.
Naham jatho na pravrudho na nashto,
Dehasyoktha prakrutha sarva dharma,
Karthruthwadhi schinmaya syasthi naham,
Karasyaiva hyathmano may Shivoham. 5
Nor was I born nor grew nor die,
For birth, growth and death are for the body,
The nature of taking up a work is,
The reflections of pride and not,
For my soul which is eternal,
And so I am the unattached Shiva.
Naham jatho janma mruthyu kutho may,
Naham prana kshuth pipase kutho may,
Naham chitham sokamohou kutho may,
Naham kartha bandha mokshou kutho may. 6
I was not born, whence birth and death came to me,
I am not the soul, whence came hunger and thirst to me,
I am not the mind, whence came passion and sorrow to me,
I am not the doer, whence came attachment and detachment to me?
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Aparakshanubhoothi
[Non Indirect Experience]
A Philosophic Treatise on Advaitha
By Adhishankara Bhagwat Pada
Transliteration and Translation by P. R. Ramachander

[This is one of the great works of philosophy written by Adhi Shankara This has 144 stanzas or slokas, Shankara emphasizes in this great work the fact, that till we realize the difference between Brahman / Athman / purusha and the things that we see in this world, we cannot attain realization. He logically establishes that the body that we see is an illusion and what is beyond all such bodies is Brahman, the absolute truth. He then examines the reason for this illusion and concludes that ignorance is the cause of such illusion. Then he tells us the 15 step stair case to attain this truth and the eight road blocks that will come in our way. This translation work is based on: 1. The English translation of this great work by Swami Vimukthananda which was published by the Advaitha Ashram, Calcutta. 2. A Tamil and English commentary available in the web site advaitavedanta.org/texts/aparokshanubhoothi.pdf and 3. A Tamil commentary and translation of this great work by Sri Navarathnamala M. K. Venkatraman and published by Giri Traders, Madras. As in my other translations my effort has been trying to understand the meaning of each stanza based on the several translations already available and put the meaning that I have understood, in my own words. Unlike translation of Sthothras, this was extremely difficult, as I am a novice in philosophic thought. ]

Every great work starts with a prayer to God. This book starts with a prayer to Hari.

Sri Harim paramananda mupadeshtameeswaram,
Vyapakam sarva lokaanam karanam tham namamyaham 1

I salute that Sri Hari*,
Who is the pure immortal bliss,
Who is the first teacher,
Who is God himself,
Who pervades everywhere,
And who is the cause of this world.
*Killer of illusion

Shankara then tells us the aim of this book. He could have used Prathyaksha Anubhuthi (Direct experience) but prefers to use Aparoksha Anubhuthi (Non indirect experience). He does this, because most of us prefer indirect experience and he wants us all to try to have the non indirect experience.

Aaparokshanu bhoothirvai prochyathe moksha sidhaye,
Sadbhireva prayathnena veekshaneeya muhur muhu. 2

The method of direct experience*,
Which leads to salvation,
Is expounded here, so that,
The good people with little effort,
Can meditate on this truth
Which is taught here for all times.
*Non indirect personal experience

Shankara indicates here the three paths of attaining this experience viz devotion, practice of our defined duties and renunciation.

Swa varnashrama dharmena, thapasa hari thoshanath,
Sadhanam prabhaveth pumsam vairagyadhi chathushtayam, 3

People practicing the prescribed Dharma of their class,
Can propitiate through meditation,that Lord Hari.
And also attain their desired aim of reaching.
The four aspects of renunciation, wisdom, loss of desires and salvation.

An effort is made to clearly define renunciation as against absence of desire.

Brahmadhi sthavarantheshu vairagyam vishayeshvanu,
Yadhaiva kakavishtayam vairagyam thadhi nirmalam. 4

Not having desire on things.
From to Brahma to immobile things is renunciation,
But Indifference similar to that towards crow shit.
To everything is rightly called the purest renunciation.

The sense of true spiritual discrimination is defined.

Nithyam athma swaroopam hi drusyam thad viparree thagam,
Yevam yo nischaya samyag viveko vasthuna sa vai. 5

Only nature of the soul is perennial,
All others are impermanent,
Arriving at such a conviction,
Is truly the capacity for discrimination.

The difference between two types of abandoning of desires (Sama and Dhama) is brought out

Sadaiva vasana thyaga samoyam ithi sabditha,
Nigraho bahya vrutheenam Dhama ithyabhidheeyathe. 6

Abandoning desires* for ever is called Shama,
Controlling external functions of all organs,
Is indicated by the word Dhama.
*desire to enjoy based on previous experience.

Renunciation of desires and endurance of sorrows is defined.

Vishanyebhya para vruthiparamoparatheerhi sa,
Sahanam sarva dukhanam thithiksha saa shubhaa mathaa. 7

Turning away from sensual needs is called Uparathi,
Endurance of all sorrow is called thithiksha. 

Faith in teachers and mind concentrated search is defined.

Nigamacharya vakyeshu bhakthi sradhethi vishrutha,
Chithai kagryam sa lakshye samadhanamithismrutham. 8

Implicit faith in teachers and Vedas is Sradha,
And concentration only on Brahman is Samadhana

Burning desire to get rid of bonds of the world is the sign of a Mumukshu.

Samsara bandha nirmukthi kadham may syath kadha vidhe,
Ithi ya su druda budhir vakthavya saa mumukshutha. 9

Concentrated wish to know about when and how,
One gets rid of bonds of this world, Is Mumukshutha.

The above qualities (defined from 4 -9 ) are the qualities needed by a seeker of Brahman.

Uktha sadhana yukthena vichara purushena hi,
Karthavyo jnana sidhyardhamathmana shubhamam ichatha. 10

Only a person who has the above mentioned traits,
Should involve himself in such constant reflection,
So that he desires and attains his own good.

Nature of such reflection is further defined.

Nothu padyandhe vina jnanam vicharena anya sadhanai,
Yada padartha bhanam hi prakasena vina kkachid. 11

Knowledge is never attained without reflection,
Like an object is never seen without a bright light.

How to seek the Brahman/Athma?(Stanzas 12-16)

Koham kadhamidham, jatham ko vai katha asya vidhyathe,
Upadhaanm kimastheeha vichara soyameedrusa. 12

The enquiries that needs to be done are,
Who am I? how was the word created?
Who is its creator? and with what has it been made?

Naham bhootha gano deho naham chaksha ganasthadha,
Ethadwi lakshana kaschid vichara soyam eedrusa. 13

The hall mark of enquiries is thoughts like
I am not the body made out of the five elements,
Nor am I a mixture of the different senses.

Ajnana prabhavam sarva jnanena pravileeyathe,
Sankalpo vividha kartha vichara soyam eedrusa. 14

The real thought process within us should be,
I see differences between things because of ignorance,
All these differences would vanish when I get wisdom,
And the various thoughts in me are the reason for what I see.

Yethayor upadhanamekam sookshmam, sad avyayam,
Yadhaiva mudhataadheenam vichara soyam eedrusa. 15

The cause for this ignorance and the thought process,
Is subtle and one without second and unchanging existence,
Similar to the clay being the cause of inanimate things like a mud pot.
The various thoughts in me are the reason for what I see.

Aham yekapi sookshmascha jnatha sakshi sadavyaya,
Thadaham nathra sandeho vichara soyam eedreusa. 16

I am the only one, micro existence beyond all thoughts,
I am the knower, the witness, the truth, the indivisible,
And there is no doubt whatsoever that,
The various thoughts in me are the reason for what I see.

The next five stanzas are powerful arguments that there is a difference between the body and the Athma.

Aathma vinishkalo hyoko deho bahubhir avrutha,
Thayair ikyam prapasyanthi kim ajnana matha param. 17

Athma is one and does not have any parts,
And the body is divisible in to various organs,
What can be the worst act of ignorance,
Than thinking that these two are one.

Aathma niyaamanga schaandardeho bahyo niyamyaka,
Thyair ikyam prapasyanthi kim ajnana matha param. 18

Athma is the ruler and exists within,
The body is the ruled and is outside,
What can be the worst act of ignorance,
Than thinking that these two are one.

Athma jnanamaya punyo deho mamsa mayo asuchi,
Thyair ikyam prapasyanthi kim ajnana matha param. 19

Athma is the holy consciousness 
And the body is made of flesh and impure,
What can be the worst act of ignorance,
Than thinking that these two are one.

Athma prakasaka swacho, dehas thamasa uchyathe,
Thyair ikyam prapasyanthi kim ajnana matha param. 20

Athma is pure and supreme,
Body is base and dark,
What can be the worst act of ignorance,
Than thinking that these two are one.

Athma nithyohi sadrupo, deho anithya hyasanmaya,
Thyair ikyam prapasyanthi kim ajnana matha param. 21

Athma is eternal and ever existent,
Body is transient and non existent,
What can be the worst act of ignorance,
Than thinking that these two are one.

Athma is not fire.

Athma na sthath prakasathvam, padarthaa yathrthavabhasanam,
Nagnayaadhee deepthi va dheepthir bhathayandhyam yatho nisi. 22

The light of Athma makes us see everything,
But light of Athma is not like that of fire,
For without fire in darkness we cannot see,
But Athma makes us see everything at all times.

Like a pot the body is transient.

Deho aham ithyayam moodo dhruthwa thishtathyaho jana,
Mamaya mithyapi jnathwa ghata dhrushtena sarvadha. 23

The foolish think that they are the body,
Though it is something belonging to them,
This sort of illusion is like a man,
Thinking that the pot always belongs to him.

The real knowledge and the real wisdom are defined in the next five stanzas.

Brahmaivaham sama santhi sachidananda lakshanam,
Naham deho hyasadroopo jnana mithyuchyuthe budhai. 24

The wise say that the true knowledge is that,
I am definitely not the body which is an illusion
But I am Brahman, I am peace, I am equanimity,
I am the existence, bliss and knowledge,

Nirvikaro nirakaro niravadhyo aham avyaya
Naham deho hyasadroopo jnana mithyuchyuthe budhai. 25

The wise say that the true knowledge is that,
I am definitely not the body which is an illusion
But I am without change, without any form,
Without any blemish and without any decay.

Niramayo nirabhaso nirvikalpo ahamathatha,
Naham deho hyasadroopo jnana mithyuchyuthe budhai. 26

The wise say that the true knowledge is that,
I am definitely not the body which is an illusion
But I am without disease, beyond all comprehension,
Beyond any change and I am all pervading.

Nirguno nishkriyo nithyo nithya muktho aham achyutha,
Naham deho hyasadroopo jnana mithyuchyuthe budhai. 27

The wise say that the true knowledge is that,
I am definitely not the body which is an illusion
But I am without properties and without any activity,
I am permanent, for ever free and imperishable.

Nirmalo nischalo anantha sudhohamajaro amara,
Naham deho hyasadroopo jnana mithyuchyuthe budhai. 28

The wise say that the true knowledge is that,
I am definitely not the body which is an illusion,
But I am without stains, without movement and limits,
I am pure, I never age and I never die.

The above argument does not mean that Brahman/Athma does not exist.

Swadehe shobhanam santham purushakhyam cha sam matham,
Kim moorkhe soonyamathmanam dehatheetham karoshi bho. 29

Oh ignorant one, do not conclude because of these that,
Athma does not exist, for it exists in your body,
As something different, blissful and perennial.,
And is agreed to be same as the Purusha by the wise.

Requests the novice seeker to reason and understand this Purusha, (Used alternatively for Athman/Brahman.)

Swathmanam srunu moorkha thwam sruthwa yukthya cha purusham,
Dehath atheetham sadakaram sudurdarsa bhava drusai. 30

Oh ignorant one, using the sruthis and your own reasoning,
Try to understand this Purusha, which is beyond the body,
And which is the very form of existence,
Though you would find it difficult to understand.

Again brings out the difference between the body and Purusha (Brahman/Athma)

Aham sabdhena vikhyata yeka yeva sthitha para,
Sthoola sthava anekatham prapth kadham syaddehaka puman. 31

This supreme Purusha, which is beyond the body,
Is well known as I, but it is only one,
But the body is in many forms,
And so how can I be the body.

Different reasoning to say Brahman (I) and Body are different.(Next nine Stanzas)

Aham drusthru thaya sidho deho drusyathaya sthitha,
Mamaya mithi nirdhesath kadham syadhesaka puman. 32

I is well known as, he who perceives,
And the body is something that is perceived,
And so how can both these be same,
Also the body is claimed as mine by the I,
And so how can it be the same as I.

Aham vikara heenasthu deho nithyam vikaravan,
Ithi prathiyathe sakshath kadha syadhesaka puman. 33

I am never subject to any change by any cause,
But the body is subject to change by age or sickness,
And when this is experienced by every one,
How can both these be same?

Yasmath param ithi sruthwa thaya purusha lakshanam,
Vineernitham vimoodena kadam syadheshaka puman. 34

Having learned about the real properties of Purusha,
From the very holy books of Vedas,
And having understood that there is nothing greater than it,
How can we conclude that both these are same.

Sarva purusha yevethi sookthe purusha samgnithe,
Apyuchyathe yatha sruthwa kadam syadheshaka puman. 35

In Purusha Sooktha it has been clearly told,
That everything that we see is Purusha,
And having read and understood it,
How can we conclude that both these are same?

Asanga purusha proktho brahadharanykepi cha,
Anantha mala samslishta, kadam syadheshaka puman. 36

It is also been told in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad,
That the Purusha is completely unattached,
And knowing that body is having innumerable impurities,
How can we conclude that both these are same?

Tharaiva cha samakhyatha swayam jyothirhi Purusha,
Jada para prakasyoyam kadam syadheshaka puman. 37

It is also told in the same place that,
Purusha is shining and self luminescent,
And knowing the body as inert and
Can be illuminated only from outside,
How can we conclude that both these are same?

Prokthopi karma kandena hyathma dehad dwilakshana,
Nithyascha thath phalam deha pathad anatharam. 38

Even that part of Veda emphasizing on rituals,
Tells us that Athma and the body are different,
And says that the results of rituals,
Exist along with the soul, even after the death of the body.

Lingam cha aneka samyuktham chalam drusyam vikari cha,
Avyapakama sadroopam thath kadham syath pumanayam. 39

The body is divided as the subtle and the gross,
And even this subtle body has many properties,
Is unstable, limited and non existent by nature,
And how can this body be that Purusha.

Conclusion based on argument in the last nine stanzas that there is a soul/Athma/Purusha/Brahman which exists separately from the body.

Yevam deha dwayad anya athma purusha easwara,
Sarvathma sarva roopascha sarvatheetha aham avyaya. 40

Thus, different from the type of bodies,
There exists the soul, which is Purusha,
The lord of everything and soul of everything,
And though present in everything,
Is different and transcends all of them.

Logic or Tharka Vada asserts that Prakrithi (prapancha/body ) has different existence from that of Athma/Brahman/Purusha. Since they are different and cannot become one, there is no salvation.

Ithyathma deha bhagena prapanchayaiva sathyatha,
Yadoktha tharka sasthrena Thatha kim purusharthatha. 41

Logic,asserts that the body and Purusha,
Are indeed very different,
And emphasizes in the reality of this world,
And that both of them act separately,
And if this so, how can there be salvation?

Ithyathma deha bhedena deha athmathwam nivaritham,
Idhaneem deha bedhasya hyasathwam sphutamuchyathe. 42

Thus thinking over the difference between body and Purusha,
It is concluded that there are indeed different,
But does the difference between them,
Indicate that the body is in truth without Purusha,

Argument to say that the body does not have a separate existence 

Chaithanya asyaika roopathwad bhadho yuktho na karhichith,
Jeewathwam cha mrusha jneam rajjou sarpa graham yadha. 43

Consciousness being always the same.
Differentiation does not suit it,
And so like seeing a snake in a rope,
It is not proper to identify it as Purusha,

The body/world is only an illusion and is really the Brahman itself.

Rajjwa jnanath kshanenaiva yadwad drajjurhi sarpini,
Bhathi thadwachithi sakshad viswakarena kevala. 44

In some moments the rope appears as a snake,
Due to the ignorance of its real nature,
And without the rope changing its nature,
Similarly pure consciousness also appears,
To be the whole universe at such times.

Brahman/Purusha/athma is the cause for the body/world/Prapancha

Upadhanam prapanchasya brahmano anyathra vidhyathe,
Thasmath sarva prapanchoyam brahmai vasthi na chetharath. 45

There is no cause for this universe except Brahman,
(similar to the clay being the cause of a pot)*
So the entire Universe is Brahman and nothing else.
*interpolation by the author for clear understanding

The cause and effect theory of Brahman and the body is enunciated.

Vyapya vyapakatha mithya sarvamathmethi sasanath,
Ithi jnathe pare thathwe bedhasyavara kutha? 46

The Vedas declare that everything that we see is Athman,
And the difference between Athma which pervades,
And the universe in which it is said to be pervading,
In non existent and the difference is a result of an illusion.

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says that there are no qualities/properties to Brahman.

Sruthya nivaritham noonam nanathwam swamukhena hi,
Kadham bhaso bhavedanya sthithe chadwaya karana. 47

The Vedas by itself has denied different forms of Brahman,
And once there is nothing else except the Brahman,
How can there be difference between Brahman and the world.

Brihadaranya Upanishad says that the individual travels from death to death.

Doshopi vihitha shruthya mruthyor mruthyum sa gachathi,
Iha pasyathi nanathwam mayaya vanchitho nara. 48

The Veda has found fault with those,
Who see manifoldness in Brahman,
And has clearly brought out that,
That these differences are seen,
By those men who are cheated by illusion.

Brahmana sarva bhoothani jayanthe paramathmana,
Thasmad yethani brahmaiva bhavathethya avatharayeth. 49

All beings are born from the great soul called Brahman,
And so they all should be considered as Brahman.

Bramaiva sarva namani roopani vividhani cha,
Karmanyapi samagrani vibharthathi sruthir jagai. 50

All those having differing names,
Or different shapes are only Brahman,
And the Vedas tell that it alone is the base,
Of all the actions that we see.



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Adi Sankaracharya’s
APAROKSHANUBHUTI 

[SELF-REALISATION] 
Translated by Swami Vimuktananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta 


1. I bow down to Him – to Sri Hari (the destroyer of ignorance), the Supreme Bliss, the First Teacher, Ishwara, the All-pervading One and the Cause of all Lokas (the universe).
2. Herein is expounded (the means of attaining to) Aparokshanubhuti (Self-Realization) for the acquisition of final liberation. Only the pure in heart should constantly and with all effort meditate upon the truth herein taught.
3. The four preliminary qualifications (the means to the attainment of knowledge), such as Vairagya (dispassion) and the like, are acquired by men by propitiating Hari (the Lord), through austerities and the performance of duties pertaining to their social order and stage in life.
4. The indifference with which one treats the excreta of a crow – such an indifference to all objects of enjoyment from the realm of Brahma to this world (in view of their perishable nature), is verily called pure Vairagya.
5. Atman (the seer) in itself is alone permanent, the seen is opposed to it (ie., transient) – such a settled conviction is truly known as discrimination.
6. Abandonment of desires at all times is called Shama and restraint of the external functions of the organs is called Dama.
7. Turning away completely from all sense-objects is the height of Uparati, and patient endurance of all sorrow or pain is known as Titiksha which is conducive to happiness.
8. Implicit faith in the words of the Vedas and the teachers (who interpret them) is known as Shraddha, and concentration of the mind on the only object Sat (i.e., Brahman) is regarded as Samadhana.
9. When and how shall I, O Lord, be free from the bonds of this world (i.e., births and deaths) – such a burning desire is called Mumukshuta.
10. Only that person who is in possession of the said qualification (as means to Knowledge) should constantly reflect with a view to attaining Knowledge, desiring his own good.
11. Knowledge is not brought about by any other means than Vichara, just as an object is nowhere perceived (seen) without the help of light.
12. Who am I ? How is this (world) created ? Who is its creator ? Of what material is this (world) made ? This is the way of that Vichara (enquiry).
13. I am neither the body, a combination of the (five) elements (of matter), nor am I an aggregate of the senses; I am something different from these. This is the way of that Vichara.
14. Everything is produced by ignorance, and dissolves in the wake of Knowledge. The various thoughts (modifications of Antahkarana) must be the creator. Such is this Vichara.
15. The material (cause) of these two (i.e., ignorance and thought) is the One (without a second), subtle (not apprehended by the senses) and unchanging Sat (Existence), just as the earth is the material (cause) of the pot and the like. This is the way of that Vichara.
16. As I am also the One, the Subtle, the Knower, the Witness, the Ever-Existent, and the Unchanging, so there is no doubt that I am “That” (i.e., Brahman). Such is this enquiry.
17. Atman is verily one and without parts, whereas the body consists of many parts; and yet the people see (confound) these two as one ! What else can be called ignorance but this ?
18. Atman is the ruler of the body and is internal, the body is the ruled and is external; and yet, etc.,
19. Atman is all consciousness and holy, the body is all flesh and impure; and yet, etc.,
20. Atman is the (supreme) Illuminator and purity itself; the body is said to be of the nature of darkness; and yet, etc.,
21. Atman is eternal, since it is Existence itself; the body is transient, as it is non-existence in essence; and yet etc.,
22. The luminosity of Atman consists in the manifestation of all objects. Its luminosity is not like that of fire or any such thing, for (in spite of the presence of such lights) darkness prevails at night (at some place or other).
23. How strange is it that a person ignorantly rests contented with the idea that he is the body, while he knows it as something belonging to him (and therefore apart from him) even as a person who sees a pot (knows it as apart from him) !
24. I am verily Brahman, being equanimous, quiescent, and by nature absolute Existence, Knowledge, and Bliss. I am not the body which is non-existence itself. This is called true Knowledge by the wise.
25. I am without any change, without any form, free from all blemish and decay. I am not, etc.,
26. I am not subjected to any disease, I am beyond all comprehension, free from all alternatives and all-pervading. I am not, etc.,
27. I am without any attribute or activity, I am eternal, ever free, and imperishable. I am not, etc.,
28. I am free from all impurity, I am immovable, unlimited, holy, undecaying, and immortal. I am not, etc.,
29. O you ignorant one ! Why do you assert the blissful, ever-existent Atman, which resides in your own body and is (evidently) different from it, which is known as Purusha and is established (by the Shruti as identical with Brahman), to be absolutely non-existent ?
30. O you ignorant one ! Try to know, with the help of Shruti and reasoning, your own Self, Purusha, which is different from the body, (not a void but) the very form of existence, and very difficult for persons like you to realize.
31. The Supreme (Purusha) known as “I” (ego) is but one, whereas the gross bodies are many. So how can this body be Purusha ?
32. “I” (ego) is well established as the subject of perception whereas the body is the object. This is learnt from the fact that when we speak of the body we say, “This is mine.” So how can this body be Purusha ?
33. It is a fact of direct experience that the “I” (Atman) is without any change, whereas the body is always undergoing changes. So how can this body be Purusha ?
34. Wise men have ascertained the (real) nature of Purusha from that Shruti text, “(There is nothing) higher than He (Purusha),” etc. So how can this body be Purusha ?
35. Again the Shruti has declared in the Purusha Sukta that “All this is verily the Purusha”. So how can this body be Purusha ?
36. So also it is said in Brihadaranyaka that “The Purusha is completely unattached”. How can this body wherein inhere innumerable impurities be the Purusha ?
37. There again it is clearly stated that “the Purusha is self-illumined”. So how can the body which is inert (insentient) and illumined by an external agent be the Purusha ?
38. Moreover, the Karma-kanda also declares that the Atman is different from the body and permanent, as it endures even after the fall of the body and reaps the fruits of actions (done in this life).
39. Even the subtle body consists of many parts and is unstable. It is also an object of perception, is changeable, limited and non-existent by nature. So how can this be the Purusha?
40. The immutable Atman, the substratum of the ego, is thus different from these two bodies, and is the Purusha, the Ishwara (the Lord of all), the Self of all; It is present in every form and yet transcends them all.
41. Thus the enunciation of the difference between the Atman and the body has (indirectly) asserted, indeed, after the manner of the Tarkashastra, the reality of the phenomenal world. But what end of human life is served thereby ?
42. Thus the view that the body is the Atman has been denounced by the enunciation of the difference between the Atman and the body. Now is clearly stated the unreality of the difference between the two.
43. No division in Consciousness is admissible at any time as it is always one and the same. Even the individuality of the Jiva must be known as false, like the delusion of a snake in a rope.
44. As through the ignorance of the real nature of the rope the very rope appears in an instant as a snake, so also does pure Consciousness appear in the form of the phenomenal universe without undergoing any change.
45. There exists no other material cause of this phenomenal universe except Brahman. Hence this whole universe is but Brahman and nothing else.
46. From such declaration (of the Shruti) as “All this is Atman”, it follows that the idea of the pervaded and the pervading is illusory. This supreme truth being realized, where is the room for any distinction between the cause and the effect ?
47. Certainly the Shruti has directly denied manifoldness in Brahman. The non-dual cause being an established fact, how could the phenomenal universe be different from It ?
48. Moreover, the Shruti has condemned (the belief in variety) in the words, “The person who”, being deceived by Maya, “sees variety in this (Brahman), goes from death to death”.
49. Inasmuch as all beings are born of Brahman, the supreme Atman, they must be understood to be verily Brahman.
50. The Shruti has clearly declared that Brahman alone is the substratum of all varieties of names, forms and actions.
51. Just as a thing made of gold ever has the nature of gold, so also a being born of Brahman has always the nature of Brahman.
52. Fear is attributed to the ignorant one who rests after making even the slightest distinction between the Jivatman and the Paramatman.
53. When duality appears through ignorance, one sees another; but when everything becomes identified with the Atman, one does not perceive another even in the least.
54. In that state when one realizes all as identified with the Atman, there arises neither delusion nor sorrow, in consequence of the absence of duality.
55. The Shruti in the form of the Brihadaranyaka has declared that this Atman, which is the Self of all, is verily Brahman.
56. This world, though an object of our daily experience and serving all practical purposes, is, like the dream world, of the nature of non-existence, inasmuch as it is contradicted the next moment.
57. The dream (experience) is unreal in waking, whereas the waking (experience) is absent in dream. Both, however, are non-existent in deep sleep which, again, is not experienced in either.
58. Thus all the three states are unreal inasmuch as they are the creation of the three Gunas; but their witness (the reality behind them) is, beyond all Gunas, eternal, one, and is Consciousness itself.
59. Just as (after the illusion has gone) one is no more deluded to see a jar in earth or silver in the nacre, so does one no more see Jiva in Brahman when the latter is realized (as one’s own self).
60. Just as earth is described as a jar, gold as an ear-ring, and a nacre as silver, so is Brahman described as Jiva.
61. Just as blueness in the sky, water in the mirage, and a human figure in a post (are but illusory), so is the universe in Atman.
62. Just as the appearance of a ghost in an empty place, of a castle in the air, and of a second moon in the sky (is illusory), so is the appearance of the universe in Brahman.
63. Just as it is water that appears as ripples and waves, or again it is copper, that appears in the form of vessel so it is Atman that appears as the whole universe.
64. Just as it is earth that appears under the name of a jar, or it is threads that appear under the name of a cloth, so it is Atman that appears under the name of the universe. This Atman is to be known by negating the names.
65. People perform all their actions in and through Brahman, (but on account of ignorance they are not aware of that), just as through ignorance persons do not know that jars and other earthenwares are nothing but earth.
66. Just as there ever exist the relation of cause and effect between earth and a jar, so does the same relation exist between Brahman and the phenomenal world; this has been established here on the strength of scriptural texts and reasoning.
67. Just as (the consciousness of) earth forces itself upon our mind while thinking of a jar, so also does (the idea of) ever-shining Brahman flash on us while contemplating on the phenomenal world.
68. Atman, though ever pure (to a wise man), always appears to be impure (to an ignorant one), just as a rope always appears in two different ways to a knowing person and an ignorant one.
69. Just as a jar is all earth, so also is the body all consciousness. The division, therefore, into the Self and non-Self is made by the ignorant to no purpose.
70. Just as a rope is imagined to be a snake and a nacre to be a piece of silver, so is the Atman determined to be the body by an ignorant person.
71. Just as earth is thought of as a jar (made of it) and threads as a cloth, so is Atman, etc.,
72. Just as gold is thought of as an ear-ring and water as waves, so is the Atman, etc.,
73. Just as the stump of a tree is mistaken for a human figure and a mirage for water, so is the Atman, etc.,
74. Just as a mass of wood work is thought of as a house and iron as a sword, so is the Atman, etc.,
75. Just as one sees the illusion of a tree on account of water, so does a person on account of ignorance see Atman as the body.
76. Just as to a person going in a boat everything appears to be in motion, so does one, etc.,
77. Just as to a person suffering from a defect (jaundice) white things appear as yellow, so does one, etc.,
78. Just as to a person with defective eyes everything appears to be defective, so does one, etc.,
79. Just as a firebrand, through mere rotation, appears circular like the sun, so does one, etc.,
80. Just as all things that are really large appear to be very small owing to great distance, so does one, etc.,
81. Just as all objects that are very small appear to be large when viewed through lenses, so does one, etc.,
82. Just as a surface of glass is mistaken for water, or vice versa, so does one, etc.,
83. Just as a person imagines a jewel in fire or vice versa, so does one, etc.,
84. Just as when clouds move, the moon appears to be in motion, so does one, etc.,
85. Just as a person through confusion loses all distinction between the different points of the compass, so does one, etc.,
86. Just as the moon (when reflected) in water appears to one as unsteady, so does one, etc.,
87. Thus through ignorance arises in Atman the delusion of the body, which, again, through Self-realization, disappears in the supreme Atman.
88. When the whole universe, movable and immovable, is known to be Atman, and thus the existence of everything else is negated, where is then any room to say that the body is Atman?
89. O enlightened one, pass your time always contemplating on Atman while you are experiencing all the results of Prarabdha; for it ill becomes you to feel distressed.
90. The theory one hears of from the scripture, that Prarabdha does not lose its hold upon one even after the origination of the knowledge of Atman, is now being refuted.
91. After the origination of the knowledge of Reality, Prarabdha verily ceases to exist, inasmuch as the body and the like become non-existent; just as a dream does not exist on waking.
92. That Karma which is done in a previous life is known as Prarabdha (which produces the present life). But such Karma cannot take the place of Prarabdha (for a man of knowledge), as he has no other birth (being free from ego).
93. Just as the body in a dream is superimposed (and therefore illusory), so is also this body. How could there be any birth of the superimposed (body), and in the absence of birth (of the body) where is the room for that (i.e., Prarabdha) at all ?
94. The Vedanta texts declare ignorance to be verily the material (cause) of the phenomenal world just as earth is of a jar. That (ignorance) being destroyed, where can the universe subsist ?
95. Just as a person out of confusion perceives only the snake leaving aside the rope, so does an ignorant person see only the phenomenal world without knowing the reality.
96. The real nature of the rope being known, the appearance of the snake no longer persists; so the substratum being known, the phenomenal world disappears completely.
97. The body also being within the phenomenal world (and therefore unreal), how could Prarabdha exist ? It is, therefore, for the understanding of the ignorant alone that the Shruti speaks of Prarabdha.
98. “And all the actions of a man perish when he realizes that (Atman) which is both the higher and the lower”. Here the clear use of the plural by the Shruti is to negate Prarabdha as well.
99. If the ignorant still arbitrarily maintain this, they will not only involve themselves into two absurdities but will also run the risk of forgoing the Vedantic conclusion. So one should accept those Shrutis alone from which proceeds true knowledge.
100. Now, for the attainment of the aforesaid (knowledge), I shall expound the fifteen steps by the help of which one should practice profound meditation at all times.
101. The Atman that is absolute existence and knowledge cannot be realized without constant practice. So one seeking after knowledge should long meditate upon Brahman for the attainment of the desired goal.
102-103. The steps, in order, are described as follows: the control of the senses, the control of the mind, renunciation, silence, space, time, posture, the restraining root (Mulabandha), the equipoise of the body, the firmness of vision, the control of the vital forces, the withdrawal of the mind, concentration, self-contemplation and complete absorption.
104. The restraint of all the senses by means of such knowledge as “All this is Brahman” is rightly called Yama, which should be practiced again and again.
105. The continuous flow of only one kind of thought to the exclusion of all other thoughts, is called Niyama, which is verily the supreme bliss and is regularly practiced by the wise.
106. The abandonment of the illusory universe by realizing it as the all-conscious Atman is the real renunciation honored by the great, since it is of the nature of immediate liberation.
107. The wise should always be one with that silence wherefrom words together with the mind turn back without reaching it, but which is attainable by the Yogins.
108-109. Who can describe That (i.e., Brahman) whence words turn away ? (So silence is inevitable while describing Brahman). Or if the phenomenal world were to be described, even that is beyond words. This, to give an alternate definition, may also be termed silence known among the sages as congenital. The observance of silence by restraining speech, on the other hand, is ordained by the teachers of Brahman for the ignorant.
110. That solitude is known as space, wherein the universe does not exist in the beginning, end or middle, but whereby it is pervaded at all times.
111. The non-dual (Brahman) that is bliss indivisible is denoted by the word ‘time’, since it brings into existence, in the twinkling of an eye all beings from Brahman downwards.
112. One should known that as real posture in which the meditation on Brahman flows spontaneously and unceasingly, and not any other that destroys one’s happiness.
113. That which is well known as the origin of all beings and the support of the whole universe, which is immutable and in which the enlightened are completely merged … that alone is known as Siddhasana (eternal Brahman).
114. That (Brahman) which is the root of all existence and on which the restraint of the mind is based is called the restraining root (Mulabandha) which should always be adopted since it is fit for Raja-yogins.
115. Absorption in the uniform Brahman should be known as the equipoise of the limbs (Dehasamya). Otherwise mere straightening of the body like that of a dried-up tree is no equipoise.
116. Converting the ordinary vision into one of knowledge one should view the world as Brahman itself. That is the noblest vision, and not that which is directed to the tip of the nose.
117. Or, one should direct one’s vision to That alone where all distinction of the seer, sight, and the seen ceases and not to the tip of the nose.
118. The restraint of all modifications of the mind by regarding all mental states like the Chitta as Brahman alone, is called Pranayama.
119-120. The negation of the phenomenal world is known as Rechaka (breathing out), the thought, “I am verily Brahman”, is called Puraka (breathing in), and the steadiness of that thought thereafter is called Kumbhaka (restraining the breath). This is the real course of Pranayama for the enlightened, whereas the ignorant only torture the nose.
121. The absorption of the mind in the Supreme Consciousness by realizing Atman in all objects is known as Pratyahara (withdrawal of the mind) which should be practiced by the seekers after liberation.
122. The steadiness of the mind through realization of Brahman wherever the mind goes, is known as the supreme Dharana (concentration).
123. Remaining independent of everything as a result of the unassailable thought, “I am verily Brahman”, is well known by the word Dhyana (meditation), and is productive of supreme bliss.
124. The complete forgetfulness of all thought by first making it changeless and then identifying it with Brahman is called Samadhi known also as knowledge.
125. The aspirant should carefully practice this (meditation) that reveals his natural bliss until, being under his full control, it arises spontaneously, in an instant when called into action.
126. Then he, the best among Yogis having attained to perfection, becomes free from all practices. The real nature of such a man never becomes an object of the mind or speech.
127-128. While practicing Samadhi there appear unavoidably many obstacles, such as lack of inquiry, idleness, desire for sense-pleasure, sleep, dullness, distraction, tasting of joy, and the sense of blankness. One desiring the knowledge of Brahman should slowly get rid of such innumerable obstacles.
129. While thinking of an object the mind verily identifies itself with that, and while thinking of a void it really becomes blank, whereas by the thought of Brahman it attains to perfection. So one should constantly think of (Brahman to attain) perfection.
130. Those who give up this supremely purifying thought of Brahman, live in vain and are on the same level with beasts.
131. Blessed indeed are those virtuous persons who at first have this consciousness of Brahman and then develop it more and more. They are respected everywhere.
132. Only those in whom this consciousness (of Brahman) being ever present grows into maturity, attain to the state of ever-existent Brahman; and not others who merely deal with words.
133. Also those persons who are only clever in discussing about Brahman but have no realization, and are very much attached to worldly pleasures, are born and die again and again in consequence of their ignorance.
134. The aspirants after Brahman should not remain a single moment without the thought of Brahman, just like Brahma, Sanaka, Suka and others.
135. The nature of the cause inheres in the effect and not vice versa; so through reasoning it is found that in the absence of the effect, the cause, as such also disappears.
136. Then that pure reality (Brahman) which is beyond speech alone remains. This should be understood again and again verily through the illustration of earth and the pot.
137. In this way alone there arises in the pure-minded a state of awareness (of Brahman), which is afterwards merged into Brahman.
138. One should first look for the cause by the negative method and then find it by the positive method, as ever inherent in the effect.
139. One should verily see the cause in the effect, and then dismiss the effect altogether. What then remains, the sage himself becomes.
140. A person who meditates upon a thing with great assiduity and firm conviction, becomes that very thing. This may be understood from the illustration of the wasp and the worm.
141. The wise should always think with great care of the invisible, the visible, and everything else, as his own Self which is consciousness itself.
142. Having reduced the visible to the invisible, the wise should think of the universe as one with Brahman. Thus alone will he abide in eternal felicity with mind full of consciousness and bliss.
143. Thus has been described Raja-Yoga consisting of these steps (mentioned above). With this is to be combined Hatha-Yoga for (the benefit of) those whose worldly desires are partially attenuated.
144. For those whose mind is completely purified this (Raja-Yoga) alone is productive of perfection. Purity of the mind, again, is speedily accessible to those who are devoted to the teacher and the Deity.
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Adi Shankaracharya

Anathma Vigarhana Prakaranam

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 [Censure of the one who has not realized his self]
By Adi Shankaracharya
Translated by P. R. Ramachander
[In this simple, powerful, easily understandable and mellifluous verses, the Acharya emphasizes the need for understanding the self.]
Labdha Vidhya rajamanya, Thatha kim,
Praptha sampath prabhavadayam Thatha kim,
Buktha Nari sundarangi, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 1

What if he has got education which is honored by kings?
What if he has got wealth and great honour?
What if he has enjoyed a woman with pretty form?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Keyuradhyair bhooshitho va, Thatha kim,
Kauseyadhyai aavrutho va, Thatha kim,
Thruptho mrushtanna dheena va, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 2

What if he wears ornaments like the golden bangles?
What if he has got dressed himself in silken cloths?
What if he was satisfied by well prepared feast?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Drushta nana charu desasthatha kim,
Pushtascheshta bandhu vargha sthatha kim,
Nashtam daridryadhi dukhaam sthatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 3

What if he has visited several pretty countries?
What if he has many well nourished relatives?
What if he has lost the sorrow of poverty?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Snathastheertha jahnu jadhou sthatha kim,
Dhanam datham dravya ashtashta asankhyam sthatha kim,
Japtha manthraa koteeso vaasthatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 4

What if he has taken bath in sacred waters like Ganga?
What if he has given gifts of 16 kinds several times?
What if he has chanted billions of times the sacred chants?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Gothram samyakh bhooshitham va sthatha kim,
Gathram basmaschaditham va strhatha kim,
Rudrakshadhi sadhatho va sthatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 5

What if all his clan members are well ornamented?
What if his body has been fully applied with ash?
What if he wears sacred beads like Rudraksha?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Annair viprastharpitha va sthatha kim,
Yagnair deva sthoshitho va sthatha kim,
Keerthya vyaptha sarvalokaisthatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 6

What if he has satisfied with food learned Brahmins?
What if he has made devas happy by Yagnas?
What if his fame has spread all over the world,
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Kaya klishta schoupavasai sthatha kim,
Labdha puthra sweeyapathnyasthatha kim,
Pranayama sadhitho va sthatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 7

What if he practiced starvation punishing his body?
What if he got a son through his own sweet wife?
What if he has mastered the technique of Pranayama?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Yudhe shathru nirjitho va Thatha kim,
Bhooyo mithrair pooritho va Thatha kim,
Yogi praptha sidhayo va Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 8

What if he won over all his enemies in battle,
What if he has added his strength through new friends?
What if he has attained occult powers through Yoga?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Aabdhi padhbhyam lankitho va, Thatha kim,
Vayu kumbhe sthapitha va sthatha kim,
Meru pana vrudhatho va sthatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 9

What if he has crossed the ocean by foot?
What if he has able to retain his breath?
What if he holds the Mount Meru in his hand?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Kshwela peetho dugdha vadha, Thatha kim,
Vahnirjagdho laja vadha, Thatha kim,
Prapthaschara pakshi vathkhe, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 10

What if he has drunk poison, just like milk?
What if he has eaten fire like popped rice?
What if he moves in the sky similar to a bird?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Badha samyak pavakaadhyasthatha, Thatha kim,
Sakshadhidha loha varyas, Thatha kim,
Labdho nikshepo anjanadhyous, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 11

What if he ties and keeps fire under control?
What if he is able to pierce hard metals?
What if he is able to locate treasures using collyrium?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Bhoopendrasthwam praptha murvya, Thatha kim,
Devendrathwam sambrutho vaa, Thatha kim,
Mundeendrathwam chopa labdham, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 12

What if he secures the kingship of the world?
What if he gets the lordship over all devas?
What if he becomes the chief among the sages?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Manthrai sarva sthambhitho va, Thatha kim,
Banair lakshya bedhitho va, Thatha kim,
Kala gnanam cha aapi labdham, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 13

What if he is able to control everything through chants?
What if he is able to hit accurately his aim?
What if he is able to know, past, present and future?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Kamathanga ganditho va, Thatha kim,
Kopavesa kunditho va, Thatha kim,
Lobha slesha varjitho va, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 14

What if he is able to cut passion and worries?
What if he is able to blunt his anger?
What if he is able to keep away the embrace of avarice?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Moha dwantha poshitho va, Thatha kim,
Jathou bhoomou nirmadho va, Thatha kim,
Mathsaryadhir meelitho va, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 15

What if he is able to crush the gloom of delusion?
What if he is able to be completely devoid of all his pride?
What if he is not affected by jealousy?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Dhathur loka sadhitho va, Thatha kim,
Vishnur loko veekshitho va, Thatha kim,
Shambhor loka sasitho va, Thatha kim,
Yena swamathma naiva sakshathkrutho abhooth. 16

What if he is acquired the world of Brahma?
What if he has seen the world of Vishnu?
What if he ruled over the world of Shiva?
If he is not aware of the knowledge of his own self.

Yasyedham hrudhaye samyaghanathma Sri vigarhanam,
SAdho dhethi swatha sakshathkarasya bhajanam. 17

Any one, whose heart always thinks,
About the realization of the self.
Is the only one fit for realization of the self,

Anye thu mayika jagath branthivya moha mohitha,
Na thesham jayathe kwapi swathma sakshath kruthir bhuvi. 18

For others are in a stupor of desire,
And do not realize this world,
And to them the thought of,
Self realization never occurs.

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[Wave of happiness]
By Adi Shankaracharya
Translated by P. R. Ramachander

[This extremely poetic and devotional work of Adi Shankara is not as popular as his two other great works viz Soundarya Lahari and Shivananda Lahari.]

Bhavani sthothum thwam prabhavathi chatur binna vadanai,
Prajaanaa meesana tripuramadhana pancha bhirapi,
Na shadibhar senaaneer dasa satha mukhai rapyahipathi,
Sthadanyesham kesham kadhaya kadamasminnavasara. 1

Oh Goddess Bhavani, Lord Brahma is not able to sing your praise by his four heads,
Lord Shiva who destroyed the three cities is not able to do it with his five faces,
Nor Lord Subrahmanya with his six faces and Lord Vishnu with his thousand faces,
Are able to do it and then how will others get a chance to do it adequately?

Grutha ksheera draksha madhu madhrima kairapi padai,
Visishyana aakhyayo bhavathi rasana mathra vishaya,
Thadha they soundaryam paramshivadrung mathra vishaya,
Kadam karam brooma sakala nigama gochara gune. 2

Like words cannot describe the pleasant taste of ghee, milk, raisins and honey,
Whose sweet taste can only be enjoyed by the tongue,
Oh Goddess, how can we the ordinary people describe your beauty?
Which can only be seen by the great God Shiva.

Mukhe may thamboolam nayana yugale kajjala kala,
Lalate kashmeeram, vilasathi gale moukthilatha,
Sphuarath kanchee satee. Prathu kati thate hataka mayee,
Bhajami sthwam gowreem nagapathee kisorimavrutham. 3

Hey goddess Gowri, I salute and sing about you always,
With redness of Thamboola in your mouth,
With black coloured eyes due to black collyrium,
With forehead shining due to the red dot from the Kashmir,
With sparkling chain in your neck and adorned with shining silk from Kanchi,
Which is tied by the golden belt on to your waist.

Virajan mandhara druma kusuma hara sthana thatee,
Nadadweena nada sravana vilasad kundala guna,
Nathangee Mathangi ruchira gathi bhangi bhagawathi,
Sathee sambho rambhoruha chatula chakshur vidhyathe. 4

Victory to Sathi, the wife of Lord Shiva, who has lotus like eyes,
Who shines with the garland of flowers of the Kalpaka tree over her breasts,
Who wears ear globes shining due to hearing the pleasant sound from Veena,
And who is pretty and has a pretty walk of the majestic she elephant,

Naveenarka brajan mani kanaka bhoosha pari karair,
Vruthangi sarangi ruchira nayanangi krutha siva,
Thadith peetha peethambhara lalitha manjeera subhaga,
Mama parna poorna niravadhi sumukhairasthu sumukhi. 5

She whose body is covered by golden and gem studded ornaments
Shining like an infant sun and she, who has conquered Lord Shiva,
By her very pretty eyes, and whose shining anklets are covered,
By the yellow silk she wears and who with her several faces
May please appear before me with her very kind and pretty face.

Himadhdre sambhootha sulalitha karai pallava yutha,
Supushpa mukthabhir bramara kalitha chalaka bharair,
Krutha sthanu sthana kucha phalanatha sookthi sarasa,
Rujaam hanthri ganthri vilasathi chidananda lathika.. 6

Those two hands as soft as buds born in the Himalayas.
Wearing gems and flowers and having soft tender hairs,
Encircling Lord Shiva with the juicy fruit like breasts,
Is moving away my sorrows and appears like
The tender climbing plant bringing eternal happiness.

Saparnam akeernam kathi paya gunai sadara miha,
Srayanth anye valleem mama thu mathirevam vilasathi,
Aparnai ka sevyaa jagathi sakalair yath parivrutha,
Purane api sthanu phalathi kila kaivalya padaveem. 7

Many people with several qualities are depending
On climbing plants with leaves, but in my mind,
I feel that only climbing plant, which should be served,
Is you without any leaves*, for encircled by that plant,
The stable and ancient one** is able to lead us to salvation.

*Parvathi is described as climbing plant of eternal happiness and is called Aparna-plant without leaves.
** Shiva gets this power because of association with Shakthi.

Vidathree dharmaanam thwamasi sakala mnaya janani,
Thwa marthanam moolam dhana dhhana maneeyamgri kamale.
Thwamadhi kamaanam janani krutha kandarpa vijaye,
Sathaam mukther bheejam thwamasi hi parabrahma mahishi. 8

You are the creator of Dharma and the mother of all Vedas,
You are the root of all wealth and is being worshipped by Kubhera,
You are the mother of primeval desire, Oh goddess who won over God of love,
Oh Goddess who is the queen of the Lord Shiva, you are also the seed for devotion.

Prabhudha bhakthisthe yadapi na mama lola manasa,
Thwaya thu sreemathya sadaya mavalokhya madhuna,
Payodha paaneeyam disathi madhuram chathaka mukhe,
Brusam sankhe kairva vidhibhira anu neetha mama mathi. 9

Though I being fickle minded and do not have devotion to you,
You who are full of riches, should see me only with mercy,
For the clouds pour the sweet water in to the throat of chataka*,
And I think that my brain is being lead like this by you.
*A mythical bird with a hole in its neck and can only drink rain water.

Krupa pangam lokam vithara tharasa sadhu charithe,
Na they yuktha apeksha mayee sarana deeksha mupagathe.
Na chedishtam dadhya dhanupada maho kalpa lathika,
Visesha saamaanyai kadhamithara vallee parikarai. 10

Hey Glorious goddess, please look at me with mercy,
For if you disregard me, who has come to you with a feeling,
That you are my only solace, for it would not be proper,
For a wish giving plant not o fulfill one’ss wishes always,
As then there would not be any difference between it and other plants.

Mahantham viswasam thava charana pangeruha yuge,
Nidhaya anyannai vasritha miha maya daivatham ume,
Thadapi thwachetha yadhi mayi na jayathe sadayam,
Niralambo lamodara janani kam yaami saranam. 11

With great faith I have come in search of your lotus like feet,
And I have not depended on any other God except you goddess,
In spite of that if you do not show mercy on me,
I would become helpless and without support, Oh mother of Ganesa.

Aya sparse lagnam sapadhi lapadhe hema padhavim,
Yadha aradhya padha suchi bhavathi Gangouga militham,
Thadha thath papai rathi malinamandharmama yadhi,
Thwayi premna saktham kadhamivana jayathe vimalam. 12

Like the iron becoming gold by the touch of the lucky,
Like the water from the sewerage becoming pure by mixing with Ganga,
Though my mind is dirty and turbid by various sins,
Because it has merged with you by my devotion, it would surely become pure.

Thwad anya smadhi icha vishaya phala labhena niyatha,
Stwa marthanam ichchadhikam aapi samartha vitharane,
Ithi prahu prancha kamala bhavana dhyasthwayi mana,
Thada asaktham naktham dina muchitha meesani kuru thath. 13

It is seen that serving gods other than you, will lead to fulfillment of desires,
But you are only capable of blessing with much more than what is desired,
Thus tell the gods of ancient yore and so because my heart beats for you,
Day and night, oh Goddess, do whatever you think is right.for me.

Sphuran nana rathna sphatika maya bithi prathiphala,
Thwad adhikaram chanchanjasa vilasougha sigharam,
Mukunda brahmendra prabhruthi parivaram vijayathe,
Thava agaram ramyam thribhuvana maharaja grahini. 14

Hey Goddess, who is the consort of the emperor of three worlds,
Your pretty home has walls made of gems and crystals and reflects your form,
And it has a glowing spire which reflects the image of the moving moon,
And it is populated by Brahma, Vishnu, Indra and others.

Nivasa Kailase, vidhi satha makhadhya sthuthikara,
Kutumbham trilokyam, krutha karaputa sidh nikara,
Mahesa praanesa sthadhava nidaradheesa thanaye,
Na they saubhagyasya kwachidhapi managasthi thulana. 15

Oh daughter of the great Himalaya Mountains, You live in Kailasa,
Lord Brahma and Indra are engaged for singing your fame,
Your family is all the three worlds; all occult powers are saluting you,
And you are the wife of Lord Shiva, Is there any comparison to your luck?

Vrusho vrudho yanam vishama sana masaa nivasanam,
Smasanam kreeda bhoor bhujaga nivaho bhooshana nidhi,
Samagra samagree jagathi vidhithaiva smara ripor,
Yadhe thasya aiswaryam thava janani soubhagya mahima. 16

Hey goddess, all people are of the view that,
He rides on an old bull, drinks poison,
Wears the directions, plays in the cremation ground,
And Wears snakes as ornaments but it is due to your luck,
That he is gifted with all the wealth of the world.

Asesha brahmanda pralaya vidhi naisargika mathi,
Smasane shaseena kruth abhasitha lepa pasupathi,
Dhadhou kante halahala makhila bhoogola krupaya,
Bhavathya sangathya phalamithi cha kalyani kalaye. 17

The lord of all beings, having by nature, inclination to destroy the universe,
Sitting in the cremation ground and applying ash all over his body,
Mercifully swallowed the poison called Halahala for saving the world,
Oh Goddess, who does good, possibly due to his moving with you.

Thwadeeyam soundaryam nirathisa yamalokya paraya,
Hriyai vasseed ganga jala maya thanu shaila thanaye,
Thade thasyaa asthamya thwadhana kamalam veekshya krupaya,
Prathishta mathen nija sisrasi vasena girisa. 18

Seeing your universally incomparable prettiness,
Oh daughter of the mountain, Ganga took the form of water,
And taking mercy for her jaded and disappointed face,
The Lord of the mountains fixed her permanently on his head.

Vishala sreeganda dhrava mruga adhikeerna gusruna,
Prasoona vyamishram bhagawathi thava abhyanga salilam,
Samadhaya srushta chalitha pada pamsoon nijakarai,
Samadathe srusthim vibudha pangeruha drusham. 19

Taking the saffron mixed with sandal and musk,
Along with the water of your oil bath, Oh Goddess,
The creator mixes it with the dust you feet created while walking,
And has created with it the prettiest women of heavens.

Vasanthe sanande kusimitha lathabhi parivruthe,
Spuran nana padme, sarasi kala hamasali subhage,
Sakheebhi khelantheem Malaya pavana mantholitha jale,
Smaredhya sthwam thasya jwara janitha peedapa sarathi. 20

He who remembers you as the one, who plays in the pond,
Which has several entwined lotus plants, which are
Full of flowers in the spring because of their happiness,
Which shine because of its swans and which has,
Moving waters due to wind laden with sandalwood,
Along with your several friends, will never suffer from,
The several illnesses caused by fever.

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Gayatri Mantras

Gayatri Mantras
Compiled by P. R. Ramachander

[Gayatri Mantras are very powerful meditation aids to pray for the grace of a particular God. Gayatri (गायत्री) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. It may refer to a mantra in particular (attributed to Vishwamitra – goddess as its personification – represents Parabrahman) or the name of a Vedic poetic meter of 24 syllables (three lines of eight syllables each) or any hymn composed in this meter.]

Gayatri Devi Mantra
ॐ भूर्भुवस्वः ।
तत् सवितुर्वरेण्यं ।
भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि ।
धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् ॥
Om bhur bhuvah svah
Tat savitur vareniyam
Bhargo devasya dhimahi
Dhiyo yo nah prachodayat.
Om, Almighty Supreme Sun
Impel us with your divine brilliance
So that we may attain a noble understanding of Reality.
Durga Gayatri Mantra
Om Kathyayanaya Vidhmahe
Kanya Kumari cha Dheemahe
Thanno Durgaya Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the goddess who is daughter of Kathyayana,
Oh, maiden Goddess, give me higher intellect,
And let Goddess Durga illuminate my mind.
Lakshmi Gayatri Mantra
Om Mahadevyaicha Vidhmahe
Vishnu Pathniyaicha Dheemahe
Thanno Lakshmi Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the greatest goddess,
Oh, wife of Lord Vishnu, give me higher intellect,
And let Goddess Lakshmi illuminate my mind.
Saraswathi Gayatri Mantra
Om Vakdeviyai cha Vidhmahe
Virinji Pathniyai cha Dheemahe
Thanno Vani Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the goddess of speech,
Oh, wife of Lord Brahma, give me higher intellect,
And let Goddess Vani illuminate my mind.
Sita Gayatri Mantra
Om Janaka Nandinye Vidhmahe
Bhumijayai Dheemahe
Thanno Sita Prachodayath .
Om, Let me meditate on the daughter of Janaka
Oh, daughter of earth, give me higher intellect,
And let Sita illuminate my mind.
Radha Gayatri Mantra
Om Vrishabhanujaye Vidhmahe
Krishna priyaya Dheemahe
Thanno Radha Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the daughter of Vrishabhanu,
Oh, darling of Krishna, give me higher intellect,
And let Radha illuminate my mind.
Shiva Gayatri
Om Tat Purushaya Vidhmahe
Mahadevaya Dheemahe
Thanno Rudra Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the great Purusha,
Oh, greatest God, give me higher intellect,
And let God Rudra illuminate my mind.
Narayana Gayatri Mantra
Om Narayanaya Vidhmahe
Vasudevaya Dheemahe
Thanno Vishnu Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on Lord Narayana,
Oh, Lord Vasudeva, give me higher intellect,
And let Lord Vishnu illuminate my mind.
Rama Gayatri Mantra
Om Daserathaya Vidhmahe
Sita Vallabhaya Dheemahe
Thanno Rama Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the son of Dasaratha,
Oh, consort of Sita, give me higher intellect,
And let God Rama illuminate my mind.
Krishna Gayatri Mantra
Om Dhamodharaya Vidhmahe
Rukmani Vallabhay Dheemahe
Thanno Krishna Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the god whose belly was tied by a rope,
Oh, consort of Rukhmani, give me higher intellect,
And let God Krishna illuminate my mind.
Om Govindaya Vidhmahe
Gopi Vallabhaya Dheemahe
Thanno Krishna Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on the god who takes care of all beings,
Oh, darling of all gopis, give me higher intellect,
And let God Krishna illuminate my mind.
Venkateswara Gayatri Mantra
Nirnajanaya Vidmahe
Nirapasaya Dheemahe
Thanno Srinivasa Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the god who is eternal truth,
Oh, God who does not have attachments, give me higher intellect,
And let God Srinivasa illuminate my mind.
Narasimha Gayatri Mantra
Om Narasimhaya Vidmahe
Vajra Nakhaya Dheemahe
Thanno Narasimha Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the god who is the lion man,
Oh, God who has diamond claws, give me higher intellect,
And let God Narasimha illuminate my mind.
Hayagreeva Gayatri Mantra
Om Vanisvaraya Vidhmahe
Hayagrivaya Dhimahi
Tanno Hayagriva Pracodayat.
Om, Let me meditate on the god of learning,
Oh, God who has a horse face, give me higher intellect,
And let God Hayagreeva illuminate my mind.
Sudharshana Gayatri Mantra
Om Sudharshanaya Vidmahe
Maha Jwalaya Dheemahe
Thanno Chakra Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the holy wheel of Sudharshana,
Oh, Wheel which has great brilliance, give me higher intellect,
And let the wheel illuminate my mind.
Brahma Gayatri Mantra
Om Chathur mukhaya Vidmahe
Hamasaroodaya Dheemahe
Thanno Brahma Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the God with four faces,
Oh, God who rides on the Swan, give me higher intellect,
And let the Lord Brahma illuminate my mind.
Om Vedathmanaya vidmahe,
Hiranya Garbhaya Dheemahi,
Thanno Brahma prachodayath

Om, Let me meditate on the God who is the soul of Vedas,
Oh God, who holds the entire world within you, give me higher intellect,
And let the Lord Brahma illuminate my mind.
Ganesha Gayatri Mantra [1]
Om Lambhodaraya vidmahe
Mahodaraya deemahi
Thanno danthi prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on that god with broad paunch
Oh, God with a big belly, give me higher intellect,
And let the elephant faced one illuminate my mind.
Ganesha Gayatri Mantra [2]
Om Ekadanthaya vidmahe
Vakrathundaya dheemahi
Thanno danthi prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on that one tusked God,
Oh, God with broken tusk, give me higher intellect,
And let the elephant faced one illuminate my mind.
Ganesha Gayatri Mantra [3]
Om Thatpurashaya vidhmahe
Vakrathundaya dheemahi
Thanno danthi prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on that great male,
Oh, God with broken tusk, give me higher intellect,
And let the elephant faced one illuminate my mind.
Subrahamanya Gayatri Mantra
Om That Purushaya Vidhmahe
Maha Senaya Dheemahe
Thanno Shanmuga Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on that great male,
Oh, commander in chief, give me higher intellect,
And let the six faced one illuminate my mind.
Devendra Gayatri Mantra
Om Sahasra nethrayeVidhmahe
Vajra hasthaya Dheemahe
Thanno Indra Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the thousand eyed one,
Oh, Lord with Vajra as weapon, give me higher intellect,
And let Indra illuminate my mind.
Hanuman Gayatri Mantra
Om Aanjaneya Vidhmahe
Maha balaya Dheemahe
Thanno Hanuman Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the son of Anjana,
Oh, Very strong one, give me higher intellect,
And let Hanuman illuminate my mind.
Om Aanjaneya Vidhmahe
Vayu puthraya Dheemahe
Thanno Hanuman Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on the son of Anjana,
Oh, son of god of air, give me higher intellect,
And let Hanuman illuminate my mind.
Aadithya [Sun] Gayatri Mantra
Om Bhaskaraya Vidhmahe
Diva karaya Dheemahe
Thanno Surya Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the Sun God,
Oh, maker of the day, give me higher intellect,
And let Sun God illuminate my mind.
Om Aswadwajaya Vidhmahe
Pasa Hasthaya Dheemahe
Thanno Surya Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on the god who has a horse flag,
Oh, God who holds the rope, give me higher intellect,
And let Sun God illuminate my mind.
Chandra [Moon] Gayatri Mantra
Om Kshira puthraya Vidhmahe
Amrithathvaya Dheemahe
Thanno Chandra Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the son of milk,
Oh, essence of nectar, give me higher intellect,
And let moon God illuminate my mind.
Om Padmadwajaya Vidhmahe
Hema roopaya Dheemahe
Thanno Chandra Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on God who has lotus in his flag,
Oh, God of golden colour, give me higher intellect,
And let moon God illuminate my mind.
Angaaraka (Mars) Gayatri Mantra
Om veeradhwajaaya vidmahae
vighna hastaaya dheemahi
tanno bhouma prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has hero in his flag,
Oh, He who has power to solve problems, give me higher intellect,
And let the son of earth God illuminate my mind.
Budha (Mercury) Gayatri Mantra
Om gajadhwajaaya vidmahae
sukha hastaaya dheemahi
tanno budha: prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has elephant in his flag,
Oh, He who has power to grant pleasure, give me higher intellect,
And let Budha illuminate my mind.
Guru (Jupiter) Gayatri Mantra
Om vrishabadhwajaaya vidmahae
kruni hastaaya dheemahi
tanno guru: prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has bull in his flag,
Oh, He who has power to get things done, give me higher intellect,
And let Guru illuminate my mind.
Shukra (Venus) Gayatri Mantra
Om aswadhwajaaya vidmahae
dhanur hastaaya dheemahi
tanno shukra: prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has horse in his flag,
Oh, He who has a bow in his hand, give me higher intellect,
And let Shukra illuminate my mind.
Sanishwara (Saturn) Gayatri Mantra
Om kaakadhwajaaya vidmahae
khadga hastaaya dheemahi
tanno mandah: prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has crow in his flag,
Oh, He who has a sword in his hand, give me higher intellect,
And let Saneeswara illuminate my mind.
Raahu Gayatri Mantra
om naakadhwajaaya vidmahae
padma hastaaya dheemahi
tanno raahu: prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has snake in his flag,
Oh, He who has a lotus in his hand, give me higher intellect,
And let Rahu illuminate my mind.
Ketu Gayatri Mantra
om aswadhwajaaya vidmahae
soola hastaaya dheemahi
tanno ketu: prachodayaat
Om, Let me meditate on him who has horse in his flag,
Oh, He who has a trident in his hand, give me higher intellect,
And let Kethu illuminate my mind.
Yama Gayatri Mantra
Om Surya puthraya Vidhmahe
Maha Kalaya Dheemahe
Thanno Yama Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the son of Sun God,
Oh, great Lord of time, give me higher intellect,
And let God of death illuminate my mind.
Varuna Gayatri Mantra
Om Jala bimbhaya Vidhmahe
Nila Purushaya Dheemahe
Thanno Varuna Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the reflection of water,
Oh, person of ocean blue, give me higher intellect,
And let the God of water illuminate my mind.
Agni Gayatri Mantra
Om Maha jwalaya Vidhmahe
Agni devaya Dheemahe
Thanno Agni Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the great flame,
Oh, God of fire, give me higher intellect,
And let the Fire God illuminate my mind.
Om Vaiswanaraya Vidhmahe
Laaleelaya Dheemahe
Thanno Agni Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on the flame that digests,
Oh, merger of all, give me higher intellect,
And let the Fire God illuminate my mind.
Prithvi Gayatri Mantra
Om Prithivi devyyaya Vidhmahe
Sahasra murthaye cha Dheemahe
Thanno Prithvi Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the goddess of earth,
Oh, Goddess who has thousand forms, give me higher intellect,
And let Goddess earth illuminate my mind.
Garuda Gayatri Mantra

Om Thathpurushaya Vidhmahe
Suvarna Pakshaya Dheemahe
Thanno Garuda Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on that great living being,
Oh, Bird with golden wings, give me higher intellect,
And let the God Garuda illuminate my mind

Nandi Gayatri Mantra
Om Thathpurushaya Vidhmahe
Chakrathundaya Dheemahe
Thanno Nandi Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on that great living being,
Oh, Lord of devas, give me higher intellect,
And let the God Nandi illuminate my mind
Tulasi Gayatri Mantra
Om Tulasi devyai cha Vidhmahe
Vishnu priyayai cha Dheemahe
Thanno Brindah Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the Goddess of Ocimum,
Oh, Goddess who is dear to Vishnu, give me higher intellect,
And let Brindha* illuminate my mind.
* Another name for Thulasi plant
Shirdi Sai Gayatri Mantra
Om Shirdi vasaya Vidhmahe
Sachithanandaya Dheemahe
Thanno Sai Prachodayath .

Om, Let me meditate on the God who lives in Shirdi,
Oh, God who is the ethereal truth and happiness, give me higher intellect,
And let that Sai illuminate my mind.

Manmata Gayatri Mantra
Om Kama devaya Vidhmahe
Pushpa vanaya Dheemahe
Thanno Kama Prachodayath.
Om, Let me meditate on the God of love,
Oh, God who is the forest of flowers, give me higher intellect,
And let the God of love illuminate my mind.

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